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Herbalists believe that health and vitality begin in the digestive tract. Bitter-tasting herbs are best taken before each meal to enhance digestive function, improve metabolism, and support a balanced state of mind. People worldwide have traditionally called upon spring greens to cleanse the body and clear the mind. Learn more about bitter spring greens that are popping up all over the land and how to incorporate plants like, nettle, burdock, red clover, milk thistle, and dandelion into your daily regimen.

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Nettles (Urtica dioica)

 Nettles: (Urtica diocia) 

Other common names: Stinging nettle, wild spinach

Parts used: Spring leaves are used most often, though the seeds and the root can also be utilized

Many people despise stinging nettles because the hairs on the stems and undersides of the leaves contain formic acid that stings some people. Many of us have probably had the experience or heard tales of people accidentally running into a nettle patch. Bruised plantain or yellow dock leaves rubbed onto a sting will act as an antidote to the formic acid. Nettles can be an ally, if you let yourself befriend this plant.

Habitat:

Nettles grow wild in wet, rich soil in various placed around the world. If you want to get a patch growing, the easiest way is to obtain a few cuttings and plant them in a shady area with plenty of compost and lots of room for them to spread.

Nettle leaves are a dull green color, serrated hairy, oval shaped, and grow opposite each other. Spring is the best time to gather the young leaves for eating, tincturing, or for drying for tea. 

 

Harvesting:

Take a pair of gloves and garden clippers, I cut the top three to four inches off the early spring plants. I am amused by the small greenish yellow flowers that hang down from the stems in early summer. The female and male flowers grow on separate plants or branches. The seeds can be collected in early fall when they turn brown.

To dry the leaves, pick them in the spring before the flowers form and before the plants reach three feet high. Carefully lay them onto nylon screens. Once dry, the hairs may feel prickly if you handle the leaves with your bare hands, but the formic acid is gone. Store the leaves in glass jars in a dark place.

 

Nourishment:

Nettles are high in iron and safe enough to drink as a daily tea or several times a week. Nettle tincture, taken internally over several weeks, supports the kidneys and adrenal glands, nourishes the liver, and improves the elasticity of the veins.

The most effective way I know of extracting the various minerals nettle contains is by placing the dried or fresh leaves in a glass pot of cool water and letting it sit overnight. The tea water will be brownish in the morning. Sometimes I drink this tea cool, or I warm it up slowly and then let it steep for five to fifteen minutes.

Another delicious way to eat nettles is to use them in place of spinach in lasagna, stir-fry, quiche or create an old Italian favorite, Malfatti.

 

Nettles and our Pets:

Powdered nettle leaves combined with powdered alfalfa, rosemary and kelp are an excellent dietary supplement for dogs, cats, horses, goats, llamas, chickens, cows and sheep. The skin, hair and bones of any animal will look vastly improved with the addition of these herbal supplements to their diet. 

 

 

Nettle Malfatti - A delicious way to enjoy tender spring nettles!

Nettle Malfatti with Parmesan and Lemon
From The Wild Table: Seasonal Foraged Food and Recipes by Connie Green and Sarah Scott

Wild Nettle Malfatti
The word means “badly made,” and though malfatti are used for an odd dish or two in Italy, our wine-country malfatti are unique. Local legend says that the dish was invented during the Depression by an elderly local Italian-American woman faced with feeding a football team and having no pasta on hand. This traditional and economical mixture is composed of old bread, eggs, cheese and Swiss chard or spinach. Our use of wild nettles would probably have made this frugal woman happy. The blue-green color and richer flavor of the nettles really enhance these malfatti. A few cooks add ricotta, but we’re sticking with the old way. This wonderful dish survives in just a couple of little delis in Napa. This pleasure deserves preservation. Make the malfatti a day or two ahead for the best texture, then roll the malfatti mixture into the traditional tiny link shapes.

 

For the Malfatti:
1/2 pound wild nettle leaves, cleaned (wear gloves at all times during handling until cooked)

3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
1 medium onion, finely diced 
3 garlic cloves, finely minced
1/2 cup flat-leaf parsley
2 teaspoons kosher salt
1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
4 large eggs, well beaten
3/4 cup grated Parmesan, plus 3/4 cup for topping malfatti
1 1/4 cups panko bread crumbs
1/2 pound (2 sticks) unsalted butter, cut into 16 pieces
2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
Finely grated zest of 1 lemon

Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. Wearing gloves or using tongs, plunge the nettles into the water and cook for 3 minutes, pushing the nettles down as needed. Drain the nettles through a colander, then spread them out on a rack placed inside a baking sheet to cool to room temperature. Squeeze out any excess moisture, then chop them coarsely.

Heat the oil in a large sauté pan over medium heat. When the oil is hot, add the onion and garlic, stirring to coat with the oil. Cook, stirring occasionally, until tender, 6 to 7 minutes. Add the nettles, parsley, 1/2 teaspoon of the salt and 1/8 teaspoon of the pepper and stir together. Cook for 3 to 4 minutes, then cover the pan and turn off the heat. Let sit for 5 minutes. Uncover and cool to room temperature.
Place the nettle mixture in the bowl of a food processor. Add another 1/2 teaspoon of the salt and the remaining 1/8 teaspoon pepper. Process until the mixture is very finely chopped. Place in a large mixing bowl. Whisk the eggs into the nettle mixture to loosen
it. Add the Parmesan and bread crumbs and work them in evenly, using a wooden spoon or your hands. Cover and refrigerate overnight or up to 2 days.
Lightly flour a cutting board and have a bowl of flour nearby to use for shaping the malfatti. With floured hands, pinch off a rounded teaspoon of the malfatti mixture. Gently roll it between the palms of your hands to form a small torpedo shape, about 1 1/2 inches long, with slightly tapered ends. The mixture will be moist, so keep your hands lightly floured to prevent sticking. Line up the malfatti on a floured baking sheet, close to but not touching one another. Cover and refrigerate until ready to use. (At this point, the malfatti can be frozen on a tray, then put into resealable plastic freezer bags for up to 1 month. Thaw in the refrigerator on a baking sheet before cooking.)

Place the butter in a large sauté pan over medium heat

Cook until foaming and starting to turn golden brown, 5 to 6 minutes. You will see little bits of golden brown milk solids in the bottom of the pan, and the foam will begin to turn golden brown. Remove from the heat before the color gets too dark, because the butter continues to cook for a few minutes off the heat. Hold in a warm place while the malfatti cook.

Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil over high heat. Drop in enough malfatti to fit comfortably in the pot without touching. When the water comes back to a boil, turn down the heat slightly, cook the malfatti until they bob to the surface, then cook for 3 to 4 more minutes. Lift the malfatti out of the water with a flat strainer, give them a gentle shake, then place them on a baking sheet and hold them in a warm place while you cook the rest. Bring the water back to a boil before adding the next batch.

To serve, reheat the butter over low heat. Stir in the lemon juice and the remaining 1/2 teaspoon salt. Add the warm malfatti to the pan in a single layer and roll them around to coat with the butter. Sprinkle with the lemon zest and the remaining Parmesan. Serve immediately. Makes 5 dozen.


TIPS AND TECHNIQUES 
The nettles lose their sting after cooking, so handle them with gloves before they are blanched. After that, they can be touched safely.
If you don’t have a large enough sauté pan to hold all the malfatti in a single layer, divide the butter between two pans to heat them all at the same time.

Substitutions and variations:
Swiss chard or spinach leaves or a combination can be substituted for the nettles.

A WORD ON NETTLES
Harvesting nettles is a delicate spring dance requiring long gloves and, ideally, your thickest pants. At the base of these angled needles is a sac of formic acid, which is quickly injected into the clumsy harvester. The burning from the acid can last from thirty minutes to a more dastardly twelve hours.

Cleaning and Preparation: Wear gloves at all times when handling stinging nettles. Rinse the nettles, although tidy harvesting into a clean container can making washing a nonissue.The tiny flowers likely to be on the plant belong there and are excellent cooked with the leaves.

Cooking Methods:
Never eat nettles raw. Cook them very quickly with just the water clinging to the rinsed leaves- as you would for spinach or swiss chard- to hold their color, flavor and, nutritional content.

Ideal Stinging Nettles: Each should have a short, tender stem, look bright green, and have four tender leaves.

Alert: Wear gloves during all stages of handling: harvesting, washing, and, preparation until disarmed after cooking.  

  bon appetito!